Study Questions: Chapter 01 Chapter 1: Vascular Biology Overview SCOTT KINLAY, MBBS, PhD Study Questions: Chapter 1 * 1.) Atherosclerosis predominantly affects the . . . Media Intima Adventitia Media and intima Show answerThe correct answer is 2, Intima. Atherosclerosis predominantly affects the intima. * 2.) Which of the following is a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor? Nitric oxide Endothelin Prostacyclin Thrombin Show answerThe correct answer is 2, Endothelin. Endothelin is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor. Nitric oxide and prostacyclin are vasodilators. Thrombin promotes vasoconstriction but is not produced by the endothelium. * 3.) HDL cholesterol... Delivers cholesterol to peripheral tissues Blocks the ABCA1 receptor in peripheral tissues Is lowered by CETP inhibition Transports cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver Show answerThe correct answer is 4, Transports cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. HDL is the primary molecule for reverse cholesterol transport. It interacts with the ABCA1 receptor on peripheral tissues to transport cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the HDL molecule. CETP inhibitors increase plasma HDL cholesterol levels. * 4.) Plasma biomarkers of inflammation such as CRP... Help identify the culprit lesion Are nonspecific markers of inflammation Are specific markers of inflammation in atherosclerosis Have little variation in measurement over time Show answerThe correct answer is 2, Are nonspecific markers of inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation are elevated with many causes of inflammation (eg, infection) and are non-specific. They cannot help identify a culprit lesion as they reflect average inflammation within the whole circulation. Most (including CRP) exhibit variation over time, which limits the value of one measurement. * 5.) Features of advanced atherosclerotic plaques may include which of the following? Activated endothelial cells Leukocyte infiltration of plaque Asymptomatic plaque rupture All of the above Show answerThe correct answer is 4, All of the above. All of these features may be present in advanced atherosclerotic plaques.